Brief Intro:

1.Heat transfer from one point to another due to temperature difference.\\2.Its three mechanisms are Conduction, convection, and radiation.\\3.Conduction takes place in a material or between two materials in contact, convection depends on motion of\\molecules and so motion of mass from one region to another region of space and radiation is the\\heat transfer between the materials by the electromagnetic waves without any medium between them.

CM of Heat Transfer

  1. \toNo actual movement of molecules takes place.\\\toTakes place mainly in solid and partially in liquid and gas.(reason > distance between molecules)\\\toMetals are good conductor of due to presence of free electrons in it.\\\toSteady state = No heat loss by leakage and rate of flow of heat is same throughout the conductor.\\\toNon-Steady state = Rate of heat flow varies from point to point. In this case heat loss takes place from body of conductor.\\

  2. \textbf{Temperature gradient:}\\\toThe rate of fall of temperature with distance in the direction of heat flow is called the temperature gradient.\\\toTemperature gradient=(θ1- θ2) / L (Where L is the distance between the point with temperature θ_1 and θ_2 \\

Heat Flow

  1. \toThe rate of flow of heat across a cube of side ‘l’ having face of area ‘A’ at different temperature θ_1 and θ_2 area depends on\\

    1. Area of face of cube\\
    2. Temperature difference of opposite faces\\
    3. Distances of faces\\

    Q/t =KA(θ_1θ_2)/l\\Where K is the thermal conductivity of matter of unit w/(mk) whose value depends on nature of conductor.\\Note: Silver has highest thermal conductivity.\\

  2. \textbf{Thermal resistance:}\\\toQ/t =KA(θ_1θ_2)/l\\\toQ/t=( θ_1θ_2)/(l/KA)\\Where Q/t = Rate of flow of heat is called heat current\\θ_1θ_2= Temperature difference is equivalent to potential difference\\l/KA = R= is called thermal resistance which oppose the flow of heat current.\\

  3. \textbf{Combination of conductor:}\\Series Combination=> (Q/t)_1=(Q/t)_2 => Req=R_1+R_2 \\Parallel Combination=>(Q/t)=(Q/t)_1+(Q/t)_2 \\1/Req =1/R_1 +1/R_2 \\Thermal conductivity of a good conductor by Searle`s Method:\\K= ms(θ_3θ_4-)/(A(θ_1θ_2)t)\\Where, k is thermal conductivity of the rod.\\

  4. \textbf{Application of Conduction:}\\

    1. Ice is packed in saw dust(reason: wood and air are bad conductor or heat)\\
    2. Woolen clothes are warm because they have fine pores filled with air. (wool and air are bad conductor of heat)\\
    3. Eskimos make double walled houses of the blocks of ice. ( air enclosed between the double wall is …..\\(good/bad) conductor of heat. Ans = bad)


  1. \textbf{Brief Discuss:}\\\toTransfer of heat by actual motion of material.\\

    \toEg : Hot air furnace, the hot water heating system and flow of blood in the body.\\

    \toRate of transfer of heat in convection is directly proportion to the temperature difference between two parts of\\the convective fluid and to the surface area of the fluid exposed.\\

    \toHeat is transmitted only vertically upward.\\


  2. \textbf{Application:}\\

    1. Room Ventilation (Warm air moves outside through the ventilators continuously keeping the room cool)
    2. Trade winds (Convection current of air blows from north east towards the equator, which is called trade wind.)


  1. \toMedium is not needed.\\\toHeat transfer in the form of electromagnetic wave of speed 3*10^8 \\\toFastest process\\\toHeat radiation lies in IR region\\\toInverse square law in Heat Radiation\\I∝1/R^2\\Where I=intensity of heat radiation and R = Radius of sphere around the source\\

  2. \textbf{Note:}\\\toWhen heat falls on a surface, a part of it is absorbed, a part of it is reflected and remaining part is transmitted.\\

    \toGood reflectors are bad absorbers and vice versa\\

  3. \textbf{Black Body:}\\\toBody that can absorb the entire heat radiation incident on it.\\\toIt can also radiate all the wavelengths if heated at high temperature.\\\toNo known body is perfectly blackbody.\\\toA surface coated with lamp black absorbs 96%to 98% of the incident radiation.\\\toA black body is perfect radiator.\\\toIn ferry`s black body small opening acts as the black body radiator.\\

  4. \textbf{Emissive Power:}\\\toTotal energy of all wavelengths radiated per second per unit area of the body.\\\toIts SI unit is W/m^2 \\

  5. \textbf{Emissivity:} (e)\\\toThe ratio of energy radiated per unit area per unit time of a body and perfectly black body at same temperature.\\\toIts value is 1 for perfectly black body and less than 1 for any other bodies.\\\toe=Eԑ\\

  6. \textbf{Stefan-Boltzmann Law:}\\\toTotal amount of heat energy radiated per second per unit area of a perfectly black body is directly\\proportional to fourth power of its absolute temperature.\\E=σT^4 \\Where E =Energy radiated per unit time per unit area\\Σ=5.67*10^{-8} W/(m^2 K^4)= Stefan`s Constant\\

    If A is the surface area of the Body then\\E=σAT^4 or Power (P)=σT^4\\

  7. \textbf{Thermal Enclosure:}\\\toA body of temperature T is placed in an enclosure of\\Temperature T_0 then,\\1)If T>T_0, then rate of energy radiated\\(P)= σ(T^4T_0^4)\\2) If T<T_0, then rate of energy absorbed\\P= σ(T_0^4 - T^4)\\

  8. \textbf{Prevost`s Theory of heat Exchange:}\\\toAccording to this theory, everybody radiates heat radiation at all temperature.\\\toBut when the body is at absolute zero temperature (-273˚C) it will not radiate any heat energy.\\

  9. \textbf{Wein`s displacement law:}\\\toCan be used to determine the temperature of heavenly bodies.\\\toAt maximum intensity of radiation for blackbody.\\